0:00:01 Hello. My name is Madison Martinez and I am a battery Scientists with the nano coating technology 0:00:06 company Forge Nano. Thank you for coming to my virtual poster on small coatings with big benefits 0:00:11 enabling next time performance in battery materials through Atomic Layer Deposition. In case you 0:00:17 haven't heard of Forge Nano before, we are a small but quickly growing company operating out of 0:00:21 Colorado, and we aim to become a world leader in particle nano coating technology to create safer 0:00:26 and more efficient products. L. D is a platform technology that can service many existing and new 0:00:33 applications from textiles to catalysts and more. But today I will be focusing in on energy storage 0:00:39 and, more specifically, lithium ion batteries. The lithium ion battery chemistry that I will be 0:00:46 highlighting today is lithium cobalt oxide or L C O. So why focus on Elsie Oh well, CEO Catholics 0:00:53 are used in more than 90% of all consumer electronic batteries, like in your cell phone, as well as 0:01:01 it's used in 15% off all batteries used globally, and this trend is not expected to change in the 0:01:08 next decade or so. So L C O has a lot of benefits, which is what helps make it so popular on easy 0:01:15 synthesis, high energy density, high specific energy, stable charge and discharge voltage and 0:01:19 excellent cycling stability. However, there are still some limitations of L CIO that are listed here 0:01:26 on the right, and L D can help address these limitations. Today I'm going to focus on the relatively 0:01:33 low cycle life of L CIO, where commercial devices are set between 205 100 cycles a supposed to the 0:01:41 longer life of like R N C M's like 800,000 cycles. And the fact that L C O has instability as we 0:01:49 increase voltages. Um, so L d can help us address some of these. 0:01:57 Before we could talk about the benefits of LD, though, I want to address the optimization process we 0:02:01 have to go through when we cope with L. D. We have found the body is not a one size fits all 0:02:06 solution. We have to optimize our process depending on each base material and their composition, as 0:02:11 well as what electrochemical conditions these materials may be subject to. Some variables we can 0:02:16 play with in the optimization process are coating thickness coding, chemistry and processing 0:02:22 conditions. The this experiment to the right shows a single coding chemistry with varying 0:02:26 thicknesses on L C o. These cells were cycled from 3 to 4.4 volts at 0.5 c charge rate and one see 0:02:34 discharge rate. The blue is the pristine, and the red and gray traces represent two thicknesses of 0:02:39 ale decoding. In this case, the red trace is are optimized coating thickness for this coating 0:02:45 chemistry and based material. When we look at overall lifetime, which is reached when we hit 80% of 0:02:50 the initial capacity, the A L D optimized L C O increases lifetime by 67%. It also increases the 0:02:57 stability of the L C O throughout the cycle. Life as we can see in the differential capacity plots 0:03:03 on the bottom, where the pristine material peaks are smooth dramatically from cycle five to cycle 0:03:08 600 while the features air more well retained and sharpen the l d optimized L c o suggesting 0:03:14 stability 0:03:17 going back to the discharge capacity plot weaken. See that both of the decoded samples show 0:03:22 improvement in the cycle life of the cells. However, even with our best the red there's still this 0:03:28 benefit still comes at the cost of losing about 6% of the beginning of life capacity for the best 0:03:34 ale decoded, which is common in, um, el CEO, we have found. 0:03:43 So here I am showing how we can further optimize ourselves to address the capacity loss that we saw 0:03:48 in the previous side. We have found that we can balance the effects of coating the cathode by 0:03:52 pairing the coded cathode with a coded an ode. So you start with the pristine in the blue, and then 0:03:59 we have our first iteration, which is the coated cathodes in red. And then our dual coated optimize 0:04:04 cell is in green, which you can see on the left, does not suffer from the 6% capacity loss at the 0:04:10 beginning of life and maintains higher capacity throughout the lifetime and a longer lifetime than 0:04:17 the pristine. 0:04:22 So then, if we raised the upper cut off voltage from 4.4 to 4.48 volts, um, our formation capacity 0:04:29 increases from 180 million Powers program to 210 million powers program, and the lifetime shortened 0:04:36 significantly for the pristine material, but less so for the decoded, which still achieves 200 0:04:42 cycles. You can also see in the bottom plot of resistance that the pristine material maintains the 0:04:50 higher resistance during durability cycling than the decoded material does. But this kind of general 0:04:55 resistance plot doesn't tell us a lot about what's going on within the cell. So as we employed E i s 0:05:00 or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy PTO investigate this further 0:05:08 while the I s can tell us a lot about the detailed resistance is in the cell, I am just gonna focus 0:05:12 on the S e I layer resistance I e the width of the first semi circles in the Spectra on the left. As 0:05:20 we elevate the upper cut off voltage, there will be an increase inside reactions with the 0:05:24 electrolyte and thus s C I thickening here. We're showing how L d optimized L. C O has lowered 0:05:31 overall lowered Overall, the FBI layer resistance in the cell as well as the overall growth of S E. 0:05:38 I layer resistance over the lifetime of the cell. 0:05:43 So in the end, we're excited by the improvements that L D can do to our base material or our state 0:05:50 of the art L C O We can increase the lifetime of batteries of L CIO cycled at around 4.4 bolts by 0:05:58 67%. And we are able thio, uh, get longer lifetimes and improved resistance growth at elevated 0:06:07 voltages and just lowered resistance overall in L D cells. Thank you so much for listening to my 0:06:15 poster presentation. I would like to acknowledge my team. My company forged Nano, our collaborators 0:06:22 at Colorado School of Mines. If you have any technical questions or business enquiries here, the 0:06:26 context for you for that. Thank you so much.