Pre-lithiation processes and benefits to Si anode stability 

Marina Yakoleva – Director R&D and New Business Development Livent

0:00:00   Happy New Year, everyone. My name is Marina and I'm director off Rendon. Your business
0:00:07   development at Liven then you challenges of 28 wounded did not impact the innovation in the silicon
0:00:15   end of development. And we're going toe here about this today. Just a few years ago, the consensus
0:00:22   waas that Silicon Anote might not say mainstream used and rather will be used as an edited WTO there
0:00:31   graphite mint there else. With many performance limitation of the silicon materials being addressed
0:00:38   and the first charging capabilities off silicon and materials proven, this technology has the
0:00:45   potential and a bright future. According to the office off the Energy Efficiency and Renewable
0:00:52   Energy for the first time, the median range for all off the electric vehicles offered for sale or
0:01:00   lease in the U. S. In 2020 was more than 250 miles for church, four times more from the median in
0:01:10   2011. The next energy density improvements will come from the increased use off their animals with
0:01:19   the increased silicon content. Who are we? Levin has bean in independent, publicly traded companies
0:01:31   since its i p o on October 11th, 2018 11 has a global footprint. Seven manufacturing sites on four
0:01:42   continents supported by 800 employees.
0:01:47   Energy storage business represents 46% off our revenue and 65% off our revenues being generated in
0:01:58   Asia. What says live in a part, it's brought product powerful. A global footprint, diversified
0:02:08   production network, quality, reliability and flexibility. Safe. It is sustainability, technical
0:02:16   Soviets, significant investment, uh, into increased capacity, the rich heritage of innovation and
0:02:23   deep expertise and the cutting edge technologies which I will cover in this presentation. Livened is
0:02:34   a fully integrated from Brian the performance Listen compounds. We have recently invested into new
0:02:41   new Mosca, which offers deputy unity for complementary resource diversification with our primary
0:02:48   resource in Argentina as well as a second bye. So listen, chemical production we produce and convert.
0:02:57   Listen carbonate in tow. Listen hydroxide and other special till ism souls listen. Chloride is used.
0:03:05   The manufacturer is, um metal, which is used in our beauty production at our plants in US, China, UK
0:03:13   and in there, this basic metal is further purified using distillation technology into high purity
0:03:22   Eliza metal, which is used in primary and rechargeable better as as well, is in Eire space in the
0:03:30   form off aluminum. Listen, Ehlers Live and history goes back to 1942. Well, Listen Corporation of
0:03:40   America was formed and listen. Production started in Minnesota in 1964 the best summer city North
0:03:49   Carolina facility was open and in 1986 FMC Corporation acquired Listen Corporation of America. In
0:03:58   all the 19 nineties, companies started working with Sony Corporation to develop Lissa Mind Betters
0:04:05   and develop technology to use Liz um hydroxide for high nickel cattle production and generated
0:04:13   extensive intellectual property for Fuller. For several families off the Catholic materials, our
0:04:20   cattle technology was later commercialized and can be found in all premium consumer devices. Today,
0:04:29   in 19 nineties will also open sites in Argentina where we build directory is, um extraction process
0:04:36   plant, which is operational today in need 2000. With developing you technology, we call stabilized
0:04:45   Listen metal powder technology that initially targeted energy density improvement in the lesson mind
0:04:51   betters through irreversible capacity compensation in 2019 with developed principal Listen
0:04:59   technology, which is an application technology for the large scale production off the high energy
0:05:06   density cells and that can also be used for their life scale production off the thin listen foils
0:05:14   for the rechargeable bettors with listen, foil
0:05:26   principle is, um technology is in enabler off low cost, uh, and better cycling and all materials
0:05:34   containing silicon. The technology offers the potential often improved red capability due to the
0:05:41   ability to find you and not ferocity and use off extrusion printing to print three dimensional high
0:05:48   energy density. Silicon animals, principally same technology is flexible, catheter, agnostic and
0:05:55   adaptable. So, um, any energy storage device where independent source off vision is desired, many of
0:06:06   you are likely aware off the stabilized listen metal powder, which is a powder reform off. Listen,
0:06:14   this unique toe listen metal form. You know that. Listen, metal is very soft, and Dr allows
0:06:21   uniformed distribution off the specified loadings off the listen particles on the surface off the
0:06:28   prefabricated electrodes during realization. Why is it important? It is important because all
0:06:36   electrodes are different in terms off capacity and irreversible capacity. That's, for example, when
0:06:43   listen, foil is used, their supplier will have to deliver foils off different ways and thicknesses
0:06:51   toe major production requirements. When principal listen, formulation is used, cell manufacturers
0:06:58   can control, and quickly just the required loading to meet the production targets. How does
0:07:05   realization walk? Excellent piece deposited under the Soviets off prefabricated electrode And after
0:07:13   electrolyte is edit all listen diffuses into the bulk off the electrode, forming solid electrolyte
0:07:21   interface and if desired, some listen reserva This means that all listen minds from the Catholic
0:07:30   will be used for the Inter Kalay shin electrochemical process No need tohave extra cattle in the
0:07:37   cell for the S I formacion. This video demonstrates that all listen metal particles convert into
0:07:48   listen eyes your information cycle. In this example, we use graphite electrode and for the
0:07:56   demonstration purposes, we use 10 times excess off sl MP required for the s I information toe fully
0:08:06   said gratified and form l I C six that has characteristic bronze collar. Same here Once again, this
0:08:14   is for demonstration purposes, so the change of color could be seen and you can understand how this
0:08:22   process works many ways off. Real estate ing electrodes are being evaluated by academia industry the
0:08:32   most common up really stating using lesson foil and electrochemical of vacuum depositions. Typically,
0:08:40   the following parameters are used toe compare these options safety, scalability, capital intensity
0:08:48   and performance principal. Listen technology safer verses. Other methods Because Eliza metal
0:08:56   particles have several levels of protection than formulated interest luring principle is, um,
0:09:02   technology is scalable. Printing equipment has highest speeds than quote and equipment. It is
0:09:09   commercially valuable and very reliable. Though a lot off progress has been made in development off
0:09:16   the thin foils, the large scale production is challenging you to the phenomenon known as listen
0:09:24   foiled splitting, resulting in the need toe frequently stop and start operation and as a result,
0:09:34   significant amount off scrape being generated and the performance characteristics have been proven
0:09:40   by all our partners. Walled wild,
0:09:48   interesting needs, technologies that are scalable and could be used safely. We have been producing
0:09:54   with a metal for a long time. We understand the interesting needs. Very well. This video shows the
0:10:03   laboratories set up. Where were we use a standard laboratory coat in machine to print. Listen, metal
0:10:11   we can print listen metal foils. But in this VJ you see that the printing we're printing listen
0:10:18   metal stripe. Then I will explain Why again. Please know that these are metallic Listen. Metals
0:10:29   strives being printed on the surface off the end note in this case just to demonstrate, and so you
0:10:37   can see what is going on here. Using striping approach allows OH am toe control. Listen, loading for
0:10:49   all types of electrodes, regardless off irreversible capacity to be compensated regardless, perros
0:10:57   it off the electrode or it's which same principle listen. Formulation can be used for 100% graphite
0:11:06   or 100% silicon containing animals and accommodate different Enel architectures. All AM needs to do
0:11:15   is to make adjustments toe the printing had designed to change the number of the stripes printed and
0:11:23   spacing between the stripes. In addition, listen, loading can be adjusted by changing s Olympique
0:11:30   content in principle is, um, formulation and S. Olympia particle size picture on the left shows
0:11:40   Principal Lisa treated electoral In the middle, you can see a three dimensional image off the
0:11:47   lissome strike before present and on the right after present. On this light, we show a single is a
0:11:58   metal stripe as printed and calendar it and after 24 hours, formacion cycle at room temperature toe
0:12:06   demonstrate that all listen diffuses and there is no metallic realism left before cells that cycling
0:12:16   this is a very important requirement for their safety. considerations.
0:12:25   The concept off using 18 and silicon containing a note materials for Lisa mind betters was
0:12:32   introduced over to the kids ago, and the limitation of these materials have been studied extensively.
0:12:40   In the next few slides, I will share performance, UH, improvements. You toe the realization
0:12:49   technique. The example here shows that in the half cell for mark first cycle efficiency being
0:12:57   improved from 70 to 92% for the pure silicon Mona Excite Anil. The next slide shows test results for
0:13:11   the full cell assembled using principal Um, using principle is, um, formulation treated graphite
0:13:21   annals with different silicon content. In this example, we use single air pouch cell with 811
0:13:32   Catholic material and graphite and no campaigning from 5 40% silicon. The electrode she's were
0:13:43   pushed on the market. The overall performance was not very good, comparing toe the electrodes used
0:13:49   in the commercialism and battery. Nevertheless, we were able to demonstrate the first cycle
0:13:56   efficiency improvement from 7 to 12% for the electrodes. In this particular status,
0:14:05   he will show the voltage versus time graphs for the same Siri's off the electrodes application off
0:14:15   the principal Listen technology leads to the decrease in self chess transform impedance thus enabled
0:14:23   fast charging capabilities. In this life, we show the second performance off the full cell, where
0:14:32   811 cathode material and graphite uh, a node with 5% silicon. The first cycle efficiency was
0:14:42   improved by 7%. Composited extension waas, 99% at 100 cycles and 89% at 400 cycles. The baseline
0:14:53   cells demonstrated 91% capacity retention at 100 cycles and 81 capacitor attention at 400 cycles.
0:15:04   There is a renewed interest to the lissome iron phosphate chemistry for use in the economy even
0:15:10   market. The most recent energy density improvements for this cell chemistry come from the new cell
0:15:18   tow back technology that allows optimization off the better pack energy output when using principal
0:15:26   listened technology, the further 10 plus percent improvement can be achieved along with improvements
0:15:33   in cycle life. This light shows the micro grafts off the electrode thickness measurement in the full
0:15:42   church state. For the baseline, electrodes and principle is, um, treated electrodes. As expected, no
0:15:50   difference would absorbed as electrodes really don't care. What was the source off? Listen and where
0:15:59   listen came from this light shows an example of using our technology for lissome cobalt oxide.
0:16:07   Silicon monoxide chemistry. The remarkable for cycle efficiency improvement off 24% was demonstrated
0:16:16   once again, principle is, um technology is careful at most. Livened has developed and has pilot
0:16:26   tested unique proprietary technology for principal listen, formulations that are applicable to both
0:16:33   listen, mind betters and so state betters, realization and listen metal animals. A key to the
0:16:40   success off the new generation betters principle is, um technology is uniquely positioned to address
0:16:47   manufacturing challenges and enable advanced. Listen, mind veterans so state better production Liven
0:16:56   has focused are in the toe, bring both incremental improvements and next generation opportunities
0:17:02   toe they're better market aligned with our customer. Or perhaps and now thank you very much and
0:17:13   looking forward to your questions Goodbye.