Silicon Oxide high-energy fast-charge cells for EV, AV and Military applications 

Herman Lopez – CTO Zenlabs Energy

0:00:01   Hello. My name is Herman Lopez. I'm the CTO and co founder of Zen Labs Energy. The title of this
0:00:09   talk is at silicon oxide. High energy. Fast charge sells for electric vehicle, aerial vehicles and
0:00:16   military applications. First, I want to thank Isaac for the invitation to the Silicon annual
0:00:22   symposium. And, uh, for the opportunity Thio to introduce our companies and last energy and also
0:00:29   share our results and show you the readiness of this technology.
0:00:36   So first, the mission of our company, we Our mission is to be the leading provider of high energy,
0:00:43   fast charging and low cost lithium ion batteries for electric and aerial vehicles. Okay. And, uh, we,
0:00:51   uh, with that a quick overview about our company. Sin Labs develops high energy, fast charging and
0:00:59   low cost lithium ion batteries for again electric vehicles, aerial vehicles, consumer electron ICS
0:01:07   and military applications. Our corporate headquarters and R and D Center is located in Fremont,
0:01:13   California, and are 100% owned cell prototyping center is located in joshing China. We have a
0:01:22   proprietary silicon based an ode, uh, that can be paired with Nicole rich and CM cathodes and
0:01:28   achieve cells with up to 400. What? Our per kilogram. What our per kilogram? Uh, cells. We typically,
0:01:37   we have ah funded joint product development programs with industry leaders to commercialize this
0:01:42   technology. Our business model is to license our technology, and we have We currently have 41 issued
0:01:52   US patents and several pending applications to be licensed our core technology. So, uh, so our
0:02:03   technology is based on silicon, silicon rich analysts, and we have overcome the fundamental cycling
0:02:11   and swollen challenges associated with silicon. We have demonstrated 1000 cycles that is a key
0:02:17   metric for electric vehicle applications. And, uh, the the key aspects that make this these silicon
0:02:25   rich animals work are are as follows. There's quite a few of them. Way currently use micro sized
0:02:33   silicon oxide as a czar. Active material. This is has some advantages over over silicon or
0:02:41   crystalline silicon and silicon alloys. With respect to to the stability and volume expansion, we
0:02:49   also have proprietary electrode formulations that we use. We have ah high. We used high strength
0:02:56   binders, a zealous, flexible binders, a carbon nanotube matrix that enables very good electronic
0:03:03   conductivity as well as mechanical stability. We also have the unique electoral design. Based on the
0:03:10   application, we have the right porosity density, including. We also have a pre litigation approach
0:03:18   for our technology which compensates for the irreversible capacity loss of silicon. We have a
0:03:24   proprietary electrolytes or electrolytes, that forms strong S C. I s and a proprietary information.
0:03:32   Aled. These key parameters enable this technology to work and is we have five way Have bean. We have
0:03:40   We have multiple patents on all these different aspects that I just described. Some of the key
0:03:45   benefits of this is that we are animals are very high capacity were over four x the capacity of
0:03:52   graphite. We can produce high energy, high specific energy cells. 300 to 400 watt hours per kilogram.
0:03:59   Ourselves are very rate capable, showing fast charging. We also use low cost, commercially available
0:04:06   materials like silicon monoxide that result in low cost of the South less than $100 per kilowatt
0:04:12   hour and also ease of scallop in existing lithium ion battery factories.
0:04:20   So I said pre litigation in proliferation is, uh, as, as you might know, working with silicon. One
0:04:26   of the disadvantages of silicon is it's high, irreversible capacity laws. So when you proliferate
0:04:31   the material you compensate for this initial irreversible capacity laws. And, uh, that is one thing.
0:04:38   Another aspect of proliferation. Also, we can, as shown in this in this in this graph, this is a
0:04:45   three electrode uh um, a curves for for the an ode. And you can see that the potentials change based
0:04:53   on the proliferation so we could control the potentials at the animals experience by by
0:04:59   proliferating the electrodes and avoiding certain potentials that could be detrimental for the
0:05:05   stability of the self or the electrode.
0:05:10   Also, swelling is usually associated with silicon, since there's a large volume expansion associated
0:05:15   with the allowing of lithium and the allowing of lithium of from silicon. Here we're showing a
0:05:24   institute swell measurement where we're measuring the thickness of the cell upon charging and
0:05:30   discharging. In this case, that cell is on clamped. It's also one empower pouch, so it's like for
0:05:38   consumer electron ICS and then the voltage 4.3523 bolts Where that was the the voltage used. You can
0:05:47   see that there's a 7% increase in thickness upon charging, and then it reduces to back to reduces,
0:05:54   uh, in thickness and you can see the charge discharge. It just continues to breathe over hundreds of
0:05:59   cycles. We we I think we saw another an additional 1%. So about 78% total, um, from charge discharge
0:06:08   in cycling, when it comes to electric vehicles or aerial vehicles there the cells are clams. So the
0:06:16   conditions are a little bit different than in this case where the cell was unclimbed.
0:06:23   Our product roadmap with silicon annual is as follows we're showing here specific energy versus
0:06:29   Catholic chemistry. Currently, uh, state of the art cells using graphite as theano are in the range
0:06:36   of 240. What our per kilogram and this are pouch cells. Actually, since we focus on pouch cells and
0:06:43   maybe they might be increasing to 50 maybe 2 to 60 state of the art with graphite. In our case, we
0:06:51   were going to show lots of data for our 315 what our per kilogram Selves using 6 to 2 cathode and
0:06:59   also our silicon dominant and notes. And we are showing, uh, excess of 1000 cycles. Very good, fast
0:07:07   charging capability with these cells. When we moved to a higher nickel cathode, as in the case of
0:07:13   811 we can achieve 350 cycles. We are We are getting the 1000 cycles as well as the same fast charge
0:07:22   capability in this development is to be completed middle of this year. A t end of Q two of this 2021.
0:07:31   When we go to the higher nickel materials and higher voltages, we can achieve 400. What? Our per
0:07:37   kilogram. Currently, these higher energy cells do not cycle 1000 cycles. We've obtained about 250
0:07:45   cycles, and we're currently developing this technology to achieve the 1000 cycles as well as the
0:07:50   fast charge capability. And this this is intended for later in 2023.
0:07:59   So some of the results. So the results are actually coming from, uh, lots of work that's been done,
0:08:06   uh, in partnership with us ABC. And we've been fortunate to receive a few of these, uh, US ABC
0:08:15   awards. That is us. ABC is a consortium of GM, Ford and Chrysler and G O E. So we have we have
0:08:22   developed these 315 what our per kilogram sells 1000 cycles and shown fast charge capability In our
0:08:30   first US ABC program, a 7.7 million award. We have ah second award that is currently ongoing 4.8
0:08:38   million award to develop fast charge and low cost cells. So here we're targeting a 3 51 hour per
0:08:46   kilogram $75 per kilowatt hour cost on a cell level and fast charge with 1000 cycles. Uh, with fast
0:08:55   charge. So the key milestones of fast charge and cycle life have been achieved, and we're currently
0:09:02   testing and working on meeting the calendar life specifications for us, ABC. So we'll share some of
0:09:08   that data. So this is some of the data and most of the data that we that we're gonna be showing in
0:09:14   this presentation is coming from pouch cells that are 12 on power capacity and specific energy of
0:09:21   315. What? Our per kilogram. These cells are combining a 62 to NCM cathode and nickel rich silicon.
0:09:31   An ode. So here we're showing two sets of cycling results one under ah, one C charge and one see
0:09:40   discharge conditions. So one hour charging in one hour discharge. That is the blue data here. The
0:09:45   data and blue showing 1000 cycles to 80% capacity of attention. So this is And this is cycling at
0:09:53   100% depth of discharge at room temperature from 4.3 to 2.5 golds and also these same cells charging
0:10:04   at a 15 minute charge. So a foresee charge and so a total of 15 minutes see ccv charge. And at once
0:10:13   he discharge is shown in the data and green, showing about 650 cycles to 80% capacity retention. At
0:10:21   every 50 fast charge cycles, we do a capacity check shown seen by the by the little in the data you
0:10:30   can see so very we're very excited to see these results Good cycling at one C and also under a 15
0:10:39   minute charge. And again, this is a constant current constant voltage charge and then a constant
0:10:44   current discharge. So this is more of a standard, pretty standard cycling characterization. This
0:10:52   data has been validated by National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, same with similar Selves
0:11:00   12 and power, 315 watt hours per kilogram. This is showing the data for DST cycles. So DST cycles,
0:11:09   uh, is a is a U S ABC cycle life testing protocol. Where, uh, this is a dynamic stressed us to be
0:11:18   attempting to mimic the driving conditions of of an automobile. Uh, it consists of each DST profile
0:11:27   consists of about 20 discharge and charge power pulses and mimicking again, acceleration, driving
0:11:37   and, uh, in regenerative charging. So this is the data in blue. This is the DST cycling for a C over
0:11:46   three charge condition. So a three hour charge, The data right now stands above 1000 cycles, and the
0:11:54   data still is about 80% capacity retention, and cells continue to cycle being the data and green.
0:12:02   This is for a 100 percent fast charge condition. So a foresee rate, 15 minute charge and then a DST
0:12:09   discharge. So the data here is showing nearly 900 cycles, 896 DST cycles complete the at least the
0:12:21   cycling for the sea over three. Charging continues. And we're excited that this data has been
0:12:26   reproduced by Idaho National Laboratory, and it supports our our results as well.
0:12:35   It's here. I'm showing the discharge rate test. So, as you can imagine in the cells charge well, so
0:12:41   they should discharge world too up to from C over 10 to 5 c It it shows very good ray capability at
0:12:49   five C which is 12 minute charge. We we're seeing about 260 what are per kilogram on the charge side.
0:13:02   This is showing different charge rate test, uh, charge different charge rates and you can see that
0:13:09   our ourselves, our very rape capable on the charging side as well. If you in 15 minutes we can
0:13:16   charge over 90% of its sea or three capacity and in 10 minutes we can charge about 80% of the cells
0:13:25   see, or three capacity. So again, very good charge capable and discharge capable cells on the
0:13:32   thermal performance tests we need to be cells need to be able thio withstand low temperature and
0:13:38   high temperature. Here we show that the discharge curves for 52 all the way. The negative 30 had
0:13:44   negative 30 degrees Celsius. The rate is not the performance is not great, but the specification
0:13:50   that we're trying to meet aside negative 20 degrees and, uh, specification is greater than 70% which
0:13:56   is what we do get. We get 74% for energy and 77% for for capacity retention. Meeting the use ABC
0:14:04   specifications? Yeah, also another result is calendar life testing, which is usually not reported
0:14:12   typically. Same cells. 12 AM Power. 315. 1 hour per kilogram cells This is data from Idaho National
0:14:20   Laboratory tested there and re plotted by us showing the calendar life at 100%. State a charge
0:14:28   storing, which is 4.3 roles at 30 40 and 50 c. You can see the data. The data, at least a
0:14:36   specification, is 10 years at room temperature. So we still have. We're approaching one year of data
0:14:42   collection, and, uh, the testing continues. But this is an area that that we know we need to
0:14:50   continue to work on other applications. So I just talked more about electric vehicle applications.
0:14:58   They ourselves are also very applicable for aerial vehicle applications, veto electric vertical
0:15:05   takeoff and landing vehicles. And the reason for this is that the Beatles require high energy and
0:15:10   high power, which is difficult for graphite based sales, and our development actually will enable ah,
0:15:19   high energy so high specific energy, high usable energy for longer flights. Um, also the high power.
0:15:27   We need high power for takeoff and landing as well and long cycle life and fast charging. So these
0:15:34   are all characteristics that our technology is very capable of working with for military
0:15:42   applications. Also, our technology is is a good fit. We've been lucky enough to work with with C
0:15:50   five I s R and brand tronics and GTs on on a project for conform a wearable batteries developing a
0:15:58   400 What are per kilogram s l This was an image of the cell. It's a smaller self foreign power 54
0:16:06   millimeters by 64 millimeters. And the intent was that these, uh, the small pouch cells would
0:16:14   replace three of these small pouches would replace 3, 18, 6, 50 cells so you can see the dimensions
0:16:20   kind of match. If you stack three of these with it with A, it would make a 3 18, 6, 50 cells. But
0:16:27   but obviously it would be higher capacity and higher energy or or lower weight, which is what was
0:16:33   really desired. For this application, we obtained about 250 cycles and this is this is something
0:16:42   that that is of high interest for for military and a swell as a consumer electronics applications
0:16:50   that we continue to work on.
0:16:53   On the safety side, we haven't said too much about safety, but I'm happy to report that these small
0:16:59   cells this high energy 370 watt hours per kilogram pouch cells uh, corresponding to about foreign
0:17:07   power capacity past them u. N 38.3 testing. And this is done by a third party. In this case, it was
0:17:16   mobile power solutions. And if you're familiar, the U. N. 38.3 consistent and numerous test that the
0:17:27   test on altitude simulation test, a thermal test vibration test, a shock test, external short
0:17:34   circuit impact and crush, and also a forced discharge. So for these, uh, small foreign power 3 71
0:17:43   hour per kilogram Selves, we way did pass and we passed the way receive this certification of
0:17:50   compliance for themselves. Showing themselves are are safe, at least for transportation purposes. I
0:17:56   know there's other criteria that we continue to work on and getting close to the end and
0:18:03   manufacturing for For for this technology, uh, send silicon nano technology can be easily adapted by
0:18:12   any existing battery. Gigafactory with the addition of a proliferation step or a proliferation tool
0:18:18   here, we're showing, uh, just, uh, a schematic of the different standards Steps Not all but some of
0:18:25   the key steps dry mixing, slowly, mixing coding Cal injuring etcetera. And you can see that pretty
0:18:31   litigation comes after cal injuring, then winding electrolyte injection information are similar. So
0:18:36   everything is a standard process using standard equipment. With the exception of this proliferation
0:18:42   step, which is unique
0:18:46   A, uh, with respect to pre litigation a $24 million deal we funded, uh, advanced manufacturing
0:18:54   program has been awarded to Applied Materials in an effort to commercialize a lithium deposition
0:18:59   tool. Sin Laps is a partner in this deal program, and we continue to support um, also on the
0:19:07   manufacturing side. We use commercially available silicon oxide materials. No need for setting up a
0:19:12   new material factory to supply these materials. Right now, they're they're already at available ex
0:19:19   scale sen labs. Technology can also be quickly scaled, once qualified by OPM s and inserted into, uh
0:19:27   into existing or new lithium ion batteries, uh, manufacturing, uh, plants that are being that are
0:19:33   coming up and this technology can be licensed from our companies and lamps.
0:19:40   So this technology is ready. And just to conclude, Saleh's has developed a high energy 3 to 400 watt
0:19:46   hours per kilogram, fast charging 15 minutes or less in low cost, less than $100 per kilowatt hour,
0:19:53   lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle, aerial vehicles, consumer electron ICS and military
0:19:58   applications. We have shown cycle life greater than 1000 cycles under standard 123 hour charge.
0:20:04   Times also greater than 900 fast charge cycles under a four C 15 minute charge, and these results
0:20:11   have been independently validated by Idaho National Laboratory. Sen. Lap silicon dominant technology
0:20:17   results in high energy in combination with high power, which is ideal for a Beetle applications as
0:20:23   well as very high specific energy. 400 watt hour up to 400 watt hours per kilogram for for for
0:20:31   military applications. So Zen Lap silicon dominant technology is nearing commercialization without
0:20:39   going partnerships with the O. E. M. With the preferred cell manufacturers for from from the
0:20:46   audience. So, uh, with that, uh, thank you very much and I look forward to answering questions in
0:20:53   the next session