ALD application for lithium ion batteries
Li4Ti5O12 coated with ultrathin Al-doped ZnO films as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries
Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were coated on the surface of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) particles via atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor. The electrochemical characterization results indicated that the coating of AZO significantly improved the electrochemical performance of LTO between 0.1 V and 3.0 V. The AZO coating layer with an appropriate thickness not only increased the capacity of LTO by enhancing conductivity but also assisted the LTO electrodes to form a beneficial interface layer to protect the LTO from the continuous attack by harmful components in the electrolyte, especially under extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high current rates.
0:00:02 Hello, everyone. This is Ye Jin on my PhD student off Dr Lee Ahn's research group from Department 0:00:09 Off Chemical and the biochem kinda enduring Miss Aureus and Feet. This project was host on the 0:00:16 seventh attendant and of the material particles which were coated with aluminum doctor Think oxide 0:00:22 films by using LD Massa 0:00:26 for the first point, I'd like to introduce the problems off this Anil material to let you know that 0:00:33 why we choose this material as the object off this research. At first, we need to understand the 0:00:39 mechanics in Off lazy my entrees part off the loyalty within a typical potential range. Off one vote 0:00:45 23 World. There are two faced volcanism for these, um, ion transport, which means the external Lisa, 0:00:53 my own, and the areas at the A says with the insert into the 16 c sat at the same time, and the 0:01:01 serial tickle capacity is 175 hamper our progress. Therefore, the advantage and the disadvantage off 0:01:10 out here in typical potential range are very small volume change and the lows theoretical capacity, 0:01:16 respectively. Researchers on that ate a cess can be accommodated with more Lisa Niles if we 0:01:25 extending the ad potential toe below one vote, no other wars, we can have a higher capacity off out 0:01:32 your But this approach could lead to other problems. We tested the circling performance off uncoated 0:01:40 out your within one vote for three vote at both room temperature and the high temperature of 55 0:01:46 degrees C, which has his excellent stability off out. Yeo Over 200 on the 15 cycles off charge and 0:01:54 discharge. Tim, we extended the ad potential 2.1 vote. We can see the initial capacities off lto 0:02:02 were improved at both room temperature and the high temperature, but the stability got worse. 0:02:08 Apparently, this phenomenal can be attributed to the more intensive. The conversation off the bill. 0:02:15 Actual light who formed solid electrolyte interface, which we call it as the I and the worst 0:02:21 structure stability over out. You within the potential range off point of one vote. So three world 0:02:29 then I black to introduce aluminum talk to think oxide is you a coating material in this research 0:02:36 iso is I interesting? Transparent conduct human oxide material. It is what they used as a chess 0:02:44 parents electoral in since film solar cells flat panel this place and optoelectronic devices because 0:02:52 it has a lot off. The wattage is shut, such as long toxic, low cost, rich raw materials, and they'll 0:03:01 film also has a much higher electronic conductivity than pure zinc oxide feel. Therefore, it can be 0:03:08 used as an arm of the material policing mile batteries. There were many research about the census is 0:03:15 open, they will feel. And they found that the electrochemical performance off your film is highly 0:03:21 related to his compensation. By comparing a logical resistive ity, home ability, career 0:03:29 concentration and the second performance off Lazio films with different are looming a content. They 0:03:35 reported that a small amount of alumina about two weeks percentage in a video could reach the best 0:03:42 electoral chemical performance. You know our research. We used the L D. Massive to code out your 0:03:50 particles with NGOs and films to solve the problems off out here. This picture is the Floyd as the 0:03:58 bad ale director system in our lap, which we used to complete A zero LD Cooking was elected that 0:04:05 these e t. M and the water precursors as those sources off, think aluminum and Austrian, 0:04:11 respectively, The perch gas is a patrician guest at a minimum of globalization. Will lost five isis 0:04:18 er on the ulcer precursors or deliver really into reactor by driving off. They're room temperature 0:04:24 Reaper pressure and this peak shows the schematic off the easy oil. The cooking process This part 0:04:32 shows a psycho off zinc oxide coating. And another part is the one cycle alumina uncle in order to 0:04:40 find the optimal composition and the sickness off is the oil. The film, the interior part coz were 0:04:46 cold his ways different ratios off alumina to think oxide a All the cycles different A deposition 0:04:53 temperatures on the difference in tone toil the cycles and the wind named of the samples By falling 0:04:59 this way de position, temperature, dash total a all the psychos and a zero and the priest thing out 0:05:08 hell was named ass UCL. Deal means ankle to doubt you To confirm the optimal condition off radio lt 0:05:17 cooking, we tested the electronic conductive to of samples. All the simple powder were cold, pressed 0:05:25 it to form pallets, and the silver pacer was called his on the both sides off the palace toe work as 0:05:31 the block intellectual when we were used to croon, um, her arm, a tree at different voltages with 0:05:38 the impedance analyzer at different temperatures. And we've got the applause from the obtained that 0:05:45 by folding this equation by comparing the electronic conductivity, is from different examples. We 0:05:52 conformed that that's the optimal coated sample has original aluminum to zinc oxide. LD cycle is 1 0:05:59 to 9, and the deposition temperature is 250. Secrecy, and also we can see the 200 degrees C with a 0:06:08 30. A zero sample has a very different slope. That's because the is the old layer off. This simple 0:06:15 was to six to be active on Lee as a coating layer. Therefore, this simple has a different McCann 0:06:23 ISn't off electronics production 0:06:27 Turner for in this study with folks down the samples always want to know I racial, and then we 0:06:33 conform the composition off samples by using XPS analysis from the service cam off Zappos, we can 0:06:42 see the curve five 200 degrees C with 38 0 sample shows. Strong think picks and the weak titanium 0:06:53 picks indicates this sample has the sickest is your schooling form. And for curve three, the 250 0:07:03 degrees C with 10 80 0 sample not only shows the clear think picks and the week aluminum picks, but 0:07:11 also the pics from titanium were not greatly awakened and curved. Who shows the service scandal 300 0:07:21 degrees C. With 10. A zero sample has no apparent picks from think from the core level of oxygen 0:07:29 from 250. Breezy with 10 ese was simple. We can see the Italian law extreme bahg ah, room in the 0:07:36 Austrian bond and think Austrian bug from 200 degrees C with 38 example, we can see the alumina 0:07:44 auction bond. It has a pending energy off 72.5 electoral votes. Well, she is a chorus body into 0:07:53 letter book. Aluminum nor metallic alumina means the most alumina artoms, substituted into the think 0:08:03 size in the audio, feels so. That is why we call the film as a loan on talked think oxide Ezio, 0:08:12 quoting instead off alumina and zinc oxide coating. In addition, the table is that the weight of 0:08:19 percent Asia for Lumina each quoted simple, which was calculated from the atomic, a racial XPS 0:08:27 recalls from the debt hole was 300 De Bracy and the 10 Lazio is simple. We can know that the A zero 0:08:35 film was not too successfully coated at is 300 degrees C and the 250 de risi with 10. A zero example 0:08:44 has a proper aluminum content, which is close to 2%. This is constant with the water report about 0:08:54 the A zero. So overall we believe that's 250 degrees C with 10 ese or temple rich tha on optimal 0:09:03 coaching 0:09:06 and the next we conformed that the easy oil, the accordion signees, an element distribution by TM 0:09:12 and TG asked my pain by comparing the clean, agile particles the 250 degrees C with 10. Lazio's 0:09:20 simple has Aiso layer with designees over about 2.5 centimeters on the actual particle service and 0:09:28 the ideas mapping off 200 secrecy with 38 example shows stepped. Aluminum and zinc elements are 0:09:35 uniformly distributed on the surface over there with particles, and especially we can see the dense 0:09:41 their distribution off aluminum and zinc elements at the edges, suggesting that the easy old room 0:09:48 was quoted on Lee on the surface off there with your particles without bulk diffusion. 0:09:56 This slide shows the Sakhalin performance off the samples in a potential range off point of one 0:10:02 world was revealed. We can see that most off the easel quoted lto samples, show the higher 0:10:08 capacities and that off uncoated out he'll at the room temperature. The initial capacity off Uncle 0:10:16 Toldo reached around the 100 the 17 minute and per hour program then gradually decreased and a 0:10:23 stabilized the at around 140. After 200 cycles, the ticker is off. The capacity is, of course, that 0:10:32 by the formation of our CIA, which was intensified and the structure stability off out, he'll get 0:10:38 worse in point of one gold 23 words Trust for Michael. We mentioned before for high temperature of 0:10:44 condition. The uncoated out here shows our shop, her decline on capacity. This is because at the 0:10:51 high temperature, the reactions off electrolytes, decomposition we're excess orbited. Then these to 0:10:59 a larger resistance. 0:11:02 Let's take a look at 200 the words He was 38 0 assemble, which had the thickest ideo a layer kulti. 0:11:11 It shows a very sharp decline on capacity. This is because the Ezio layer off this temple is to 0:11:18 thinks to be active only as a coating material. It also acted as the annulment here. In contrast, 0:11:26 250 degrees he was 10. A zero sample shows are remarkable improvement on the specific capacity and 0:11:34 the stability within 00.123 world, which can be attributed to to the higher conductive ity and the 0:11:41 protection provided by the older was appropriated to sick please 0:11:47 for red performance off samples. And we can see that the Uncle Todo shows a quick decrease in 0:11:54 capacity with the current to retain Chris for bulls, room temperature and high temperature in 0:11:59 contrast to 250 deeper Z with tenley. The example, his place and excellent to read capability and a 0:12:07 stability attributed to to the conductive is the old cultural layer with an optimal sickness which 0:12:14 can improve the conductive drove out here and the ridge of fast electron transport. And it is worth 0:12:22 mentioning that the 200 degrees C with 38 0 sample shows ah higher capacity at point to Syria, which 0:12:30 is deal to the overthink is the old layer provide additional capacity as an animal material instead 0:12:38 of just a protective coaching, which was a lowing Morley semi owes to insert into post Israel 0:12:46 coating layer and al teal particles. This conclusion can be obtained by comparing the charge and the 0:12:53 discharge curves. We can see the old Hill part coz who is the optimal ways they were quoting, shows 0:12:59 a similar shape of curves as the ankle to the out you. However, the 200 degrees he was 38 0 sample 0:13:07 shows a different trends. The position of plant whole changed. In other words, it also shows the 0:13:13 electrochemical cattle resistance off a zero anil cyclical term Entry CV is a electrochemical 0:13:22 technique commonly used to investigate the reduction and the oxidation processes off battery, 0:13:29 charging and discharging. In a typical CV curve, the potential were has a peak missed that the 0:13:36 electrochemical oxidation or reduction reaction occurs. In addition, the intensity off the pig 0:13:43 reflects the electoral chemical reads activity at that potential. A higher pick shows in current 0:13:50 ability is a batter electoral chemical reactivity for elderly lecturers, there Arc station and a 0:13:57 reduction picks at around the one point of fire and the 1.7 both, I should be able to the to the 0:14:03 Redox reactions between federal valid to pay attention I'll to travel a titanium ill they reversible 0:14:11 reduction peak at around the point of seven. Bold in the first cycle should come from the U reverse 0:14:17 for electoral light to compensation. The pair over realizable picks below pointed six won't should 0:14:25 correspond to the insertion and extraction off Lisa Miles. After a sad end out, he'll spend no 0:14:32 structure which can provide the actual capacity over out he'll, except for the discharge process off 0:14:41 the first cycle for a C information. The other psychos off 250 degrees C with 10 a zero example 0:14:49 overlap very well. However, unquote lto displaced at the peak hard this decreased was increasing 0:14:57 cycles that may be related to the big irreversible loss. Awfully see my arse during the first cycle. 0:15:06 For lto anil, the electrode forming a stable and the uniformity interface layer between the election 0:15:13 and the electrolyte is beneficial to the stability. Because the S e I layer will keep growing till 0:15:20 to a stable condition and that this process will continue to consume these in the aisles. Therefore, 0:15:28 we compared to the ECM damages so fresh and the cycle the electoral. The surface for the lectured at 0:15:36 fresh state, there are some more particles on the election should be from the bender and the 0:15:42 conductive materials, which were makes the for the fabrication off the electric pace and the fourth 0:15:49 cycle a lecture. Old we can see there is a more uniformly or fully coward on the surface, off the 0:15:56 250 de risi with 10 a zero electoral and for the ankle tid out your electoral there are more small. 0:16:04 Parker's attached the on the surface, which is not uniform and cannot protect the electrode. We also 0:16:12 can't after the i R Back for for the Psycho, the Lecture of Surveys which shows the components off a 0:16:18 C I layer our existing in the interface like here. 0:16:24 From this project, we summarized the functions off optimized ese Rosenfield as to folding two points 0:16:32 protective function assisting out here electrode toe form a beneficial interface layer to protect 0:16:39 the out, he'll from electoral life and the conductive function. Increasing the subsidy thick 0:16:45 capacity off lto by enhancing electronic conductivity and the paper related to this project have 0:16:53 been published in journals power sources. This work was supported in part by the National Science 0:17:00 Foundation. Thank you