Room Temperature Precursor Vaporization for ALD 

Session Notes:


Dr. Moon-Hyung Jang 

University of Alabama in Huntsville 



Room temperature vaporization of Titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor was performed using ultrasonic atomization module installed in TTIP precursor bubbler for ALD TiO2 thin films. In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) data shows significantly higher growth rate with TTIP ultrasonic atomizer than that without it because ultrasonic atomization of TTIP occurs even at room temperature. TiO2 growth rates at different ALD reactor temperatures remain unchanged up to 180 oC. Two dimensional TiO2 film thickness mappings were performed by Spectroscopic Elliposometry (SE). The thickness variation of TiO2 film by atomized TTIP is worse than that of TiO2 grown by thermally vaporized TTIP because some droplets of atomized TTIP are quite heavy to touch the back of ALD reactor with a cross-flow configuration. However, with a perpendicular flow configuration of ALD, the thickness uniformity will be significantly improved. 
Also, ALD coating for heterogeneous catalysts will be discussed.

0:00:01   Hello, everyone. My name is Moon Young John, Postal researcher in Givers of Oliver, Meet Hans Bill.
0:00:08   I'm working it with Professor. You lay to develop the new A and the technologies. It is my pleasure
0:00:18   to have a presentation today. I'm going to talk about two different toppings today the first morning
0:00:23   and using the total Sony Atomizer model to generate paper precursor loom temperature for air. The
0:00:33   different growth And this poppy is very interesting but very simple. So we'll be very interesting
0:00:43   topic for everybody a thing. And the 2nd 1 will be the improvement off enhancement of Dion
0:00:52   Virginia's Cavalli's. So basically, we improved establishing the precursor for um, you know, you
0:01:03   move the organic component in water. Okay, let's get started. So previously were testimony
0:01:12   transistor more than wars used forward doesn't spray Powell. This is basically education. See from
0:01:21   the picture. It's basically spraying the because solution to deposit on the substrate at the bottom.
0:01:31   The problem is tackle Tekken Iwas. It can only generate the microns eyes because the size of tablet
0:01:39   impossibly proportionate to the you know the doesn't frequency, so it's not alone to have like,
0:01:48   smaller particles. So so you can only deposit particles in several film in films like tens of None
0:01:56   of Your Size, it's impossible. The second thing we want to think about these. There's something
0:02:05   contract licking injection in a day. So it's basically pressurizing the precursor to vaporised
0:02:16   and then sprayed into clear the reactor with passed through the very small time nozzle. So the
0:02:27   problem of the technique was even though he was not here. It can be clogged because of northern
0:02:35   Dooney Small. They can leave residues on the circus off the substrate. So from these poor job, you
0:02:45   read one of Tibet or something that it doesn't heat the because of popular. But also it has to be.
0:02:57   The final product has to be very beautiful and like my crone, not micro sized Piper's. We want not
0:03:07   immunise eyes you form control their films. The pace Kony. Keep in mind that, and then next thing
0:03:18   you won't think about is the paper ization off ticket. But I will tell something. Tech elements
0:03:25   that's the main killed this presentation. So basically we used exact same old asserting turns. US
0:03:34   plans to use a model for room temperature should verifying. It's basically for you know, vaporizes
0:03:41   the water and, um, temperature, so so that the temperature doesn't go up to the content. That legacy
0:03:49   is dangerous for our humidifiers. People used this technology for papers in the water, so we applied
0:03:57   his technique to the because the system in A and E so applying these technologies to aliases had an
0:04:05   advantage for look, and it comes on consumption. You Tony consumes five watts for hours, so it's
0:04:14   very, very energy efficient. And since it doesn't apply hit real need operated at room temperature.
0:04:23   That means the because they can, um, you know, freezer can be preserved longer peered time like it
0:04:32   is not going to decompose very easily because we don't heated at all. Um, and the other thing is, um,
0:04:41   the paper pressure doesn't it to be high to be used in a Basically, you can use any kid teibel
0:04:52   pressure to vaporised using these techniques. So that gives much more borrowing for Iran to Sunday
0:05:00   the precursors in a the and it also doesn't need like very soon nozzle. So we are free from, you
0:05:09   know, clogging. Uh, you know, the pathway based, but also it isn't this advantage. So basically, we
0:05:19   need to think about, you know, the course of a Playmobil, because is so you because it has, You know,
0:05:28   some, you know, then just features you for this flame over you. Maybe not having to be used. So we
0:05:36   had to be extremely careful about the safety. And also I want to mention about the drama size
0:05:44   control so People's Navy reviewed in the spray. Part of this is there's a shoes disorder advantage
0:05:51   because of the particle. Size is not very small, but since we're using a technique, so we only think
0:05:59   about reaction on the search surface, right? So basically advocacy from the picture of the growth or
0:06:12   the premier's only happened on the surface. There. Pace cream means, even though that's the size of
0:06:18   trouble, it is bigger than you know, my crone. It can only react on the surface other original,
0:06:27   because we'll get vaporised and it's not going to be. Flooring like micro size particles is going
0:06:35   basically from the symptoms. So this so combining that would just be technology. With this, a of
0:06:45   these circuits limiting growth womb make really great results. You will see it soon.
0:06:54   Sorry. So there was the concept lt's extremists. So we actually had to, you know, fabricate the rial
0:07:05   wall. Totally optimizer, as you can see from the pictures here. So on the left, you can see the
0:07:12   doctors community diagram community off the doesn't automatic confirmation. So we use, um because
0:07:21   container with class parks Claire class that we had a two We had to let rose on the time like that.
0:07:30   And then there's a doesn't interest is a modern model and the we choose T t i p because of two
0:07:37   departed titanium oxide together with H Two Oaks Dodger. And we don't have any heating element in
0:07:49   the on the container. We only just heat up the line at four degrees C two. Minimize that you picked
0:07:59   up like clogging. And we have the Bellevue pneumatic valve system here. Oh, as you can see, and then
0:08:08   these doesn't change your terms. Do Sony Bruce 40 kilohertz, which is not very high. It can go like,
0:08:17   um, megahertz and that there's no nozzle here. Um, you'll see the video footage off operating
0:08:27   atomizer. Meaty Champion Next slide. Let's play this video.
0:08:49   So basically it's very simple. Use us
0:08:53   con, you know, and the your uh, basically, paper rise Optimized the T T i p solution liquid, as you
0:09:03   can see from the
0:09:14   So we made that attachment, and then we be eternally just attention, Teoh adjusting any of the
0:09:22   system. But there's known need to like mortify like mass when we just replaced the conventional
0:09:33   problema with his optimized attachment. And so, since we re already are developed this technology, I
0:09:43   can tell you there are some problems, but with which can be fixed easily in riel. So basically,
0:09:53   thesis or testimony, model and electrical configuration is very important to, you know, toe, operate
0:10:04   this one. Basically, you have to be dearly careful wiring this, uh, electrical configuration so we
0:10:14   can touch, like the standard, still weaken, touch each other wires. So in that case, you to replace
0:10:23   it, they often So it has to be examining careful carefully you secure. And then it's also using
0:10:31   electrics and can be you can go to the dangerous. So be careful over there, And this is junior
0:10:39   pointing. So So I try like, multiple times to get the constant result. But I had, uh I have, ah,
0:10:49   problem getting it because I didn't realize the pressure inside this container was very important.
0:10:58   So if there's no pressure using the latter's castle, anything, if there's no pressure inside of the
0:11:08   bubbler, it's not going to go out, even though there was a formation of the teeter P paper, So you
0:11:18   can see from, uh, this committee. So Unit two increase the pressure off the bubbler and then operate
0:11:29   there were tested transducer to increase the do you take your paper paper in the container, and then
0:11:38   you have to after the open that bell numeric bell to flow these days, pay paper to the react and
0:11:47   reactor that is very important, re doctoring it. Sometimes I was able to get some clothes, sometimes
0:11:57   not. He was not very consistent. That's because the pressure off the content was not very consistent.
0:12:07   So basically, you have to have really good control depression inside the automation.
0:12:16   And so, after realizing those factors were able to confirm the growth off titanium dioxide using
0:12:26   these, optimize a technique. So this is in such a Q same data after growing Titania, except for 50
0:12:35   cycles. So on the left you can see the record and the blacker. The record means, uh, with the
0:12:46   optimizer trances on other consciously exactly saying And this one the black one at much off with
0:12:57   other countries. Exactly. Same. So basically, we pressure allies detail I p and exposed for five
0:13:05   seconds inch. And after that we exposed the detail. You know, Bricker's accordion, Syracuse Teoh
0:13:15   edged tool or 175 seconds. And then that runs for 50 cycles. The base clean. You can see shoes D
0:13:26   prince between the black and red that only the difference. Only the difference is the optimize on
0:13:32   and off. So, basically, you can see bearing in your girl so beautiful growth of titanium side here.
0:13:41   And when I get to each cycle on the right, uh, you can see the t I. P is released at this point. And
0:13:54   then after that, we opened the belt again and pressurize it and they close it. And at that point, we
0:14:02   exposer
0:14:05   water like this and then close it and then, uh, just be evacuated a little bit on the open, the
0:14:16   teacher after again. So that's basically during this time that you tape you will get paper rise with
0:14:23   pressurized chamber, so these the whole cycle is very important. Forties process
0:14:36   and we also try at different reactive temperatures. So the previous slide shows record temperatures
0:14:44   at 1 40 this scene. But this won't you, Sly shows Victor Temperature 1 25 1 41 80 dvc Basically,
0:14:54   those things almost identical. Um, so I can go these shows off. Is that the same behavior? Even with
0:15:03   different reactor temperature's what What it means?
0:15:08   I think he means you had surface and limiting growth off air character. So we can We're gonna look
0:15:15   up the, uh you know, gross rate in next page. Basically, the the rip thoughts means the atomizer on
0:15:28   and the blood time use atomize all. And as we mentioned as I mentioned, ive the itemizes Oh oh, When
0:15:39   the atomize evolve, the cruise readies almost you Almost you It's sometimes you can grow the replies
0:15:47   because of probably something remained in the line. Read Thought means the growth rate is almost
0:15:55   constant. Opportunity one. Anything you see that goes rate some of the increases at higher
0:16:04   temperature, older and reactor. That means the therapist, the meeting a year, the crows character
0:16:15   off course in these temperature window
0:16:21   and then at two passing the temperature,
0:16:26   it gets very high cross rate. So it does that the circus limit growth character off alienating.
0:16:37   And then we also or, um, very few years over the uniformity on this film. The pace guarantees on
0:16:49   shows the big Chris map over the way per entire way for uh, And there we measure the decrease. Oh,
0:16:59   each points using spectral Skopje Arab symmetry. So it has over 70 points. You're from the just
0:17:09   return in on circle wafer. The lift that means the continual side because usually automotive
0:17:19   technology and the right side means traditional titanium oxide technology, like getting the bubbler
0:17:27   at 70 pregnancy and using the traditional recipe and then the T I p whoa have maple will from the
0:17:39   top left side on each case, and then the water exposure will be the bottom left side. Oh, in these
0:17:49   plots. So basically, the skin color scare means the red means picker and bloom is dim, and autumn
0:17:59   Arsenal atomize originally shows about 24 on some to 30 form strong um, dick, because variation. But
0:18:10   the traditional titles that has better year for me from 34 to 38 on something like that gives letter
0:18:21   thoughts basically to me So we use the Eddie with cause for configuration. That means because the
0:18:32   optimize only gives bugle sounds plummets it actually, um, it's hard to flow all the way to the to
0:18:43   the back side of the chamber. That's what it shows here. So basically, the tickers difference is
0:18:51   much larger in autumn. Agitating oxide. That means the T. T I. P drama sizes bigger so it doesn't
0:19:03   flow all the way to the back. That's what he shows that thing born. Here's a thing you've so there's
0:19:13   a perpendicular flow. Ailey If you use that technique, you won't have any problem to have bury your
0:19:22   phone taking all scientific. My thing, um, produces these shows every wars, you know, stickers,
0:19:32   variation. But it can be result very easily with different company originality. Yeah, the conclusion.
0:19:42   So we are able to grow and the continual so using We're testimony optimizer technique to bay prize
0:19:52   the teacher happy pre Christian, a loom temperature We didn't even hit like at all like
0:19:58   traditionally you have to hear it at 72 c, right? So it's very surprising Interesting, resorting to
0:20:08   to be honest and then the key waas actually pressurizing the optimizer container to get the concepts
0:20:19   on visual, and it's very control. The experiment, Um, but there was some, you know, problem on the
0:20:30   year for minute, but it can be very easily resolved. And this technique will provide uh, so much
0:20:38   more opportunity to choose a lot different kind of precursor because there were like, you know, he's
0:20:46   limited the because it's demeaning because the paper pressure, because the temperature so we can be
0:20:55   overcome basically very easily if he applied his technique. No to Andy. We like to tend to Army S B
0:21:06   I A program, and we left paying asset and some information solutions, and they really liked paying
0:21:14   us civil level. Need Huntsman
0:21:20   and next topic is enhancement on a couple heritages. Copper Kelly's steps stubbly for Carol, the
0:21:30   ordination in war human. So we basically you use a of the according to improve the steadily or being
0:21:41   couple Calvi's
0:21:46   um so basically, this is about heritages calories, so we have the system with copper oxide silicon
0:21:55   dioxide system. It's basically about moving the organic, continuing from the water, using the
0:22:05   intelligence catalyst and awesome, and it has so many advantages. It's very simple. It's not toxic
0:22:17   non toxic. So people trying to do such a more and more and get some more publications on these
0:22:25   topics.
0:22:31   Um, but the problem. There's some problems and questions. So basically,
0:22:40   we don't know exactly the days of, like, metal irons because since you used, like, some kind of when
0:22:47   you, you know, metal transition, metal oxides system. So, for for this topic, we don't know if
0:22:57   there's a so so, you know, maybe like a couple lions after a reaction, and that there will be the
0:23:05   main copy here to that to improve that.
0:23:15   So we have the according generator and analyzer. Uh, for the catalytic reaction set up here in the
0:23:25   reactor, the contaminants were way. Oh, too different teams first on his open book, Sally, accede
0:23:35   acid and then nitrobenzene. So you basically with a catalyst and then ozone, it has to be decomposed.
0:23:51   And then you can see the total Mama Amano, oak Sally at S C Decreases on the left. When days There
0:24:02   was a origin. Plus Tariceanu's corporal cop Oksana Circle dioxide callous here. Um, And also, if
0:24:17   there's a copper, I am, it is gonna have the same behavior. It's going to decrease almost like,
0:24:24   exactly seen so that being said, we don't know he pretties because of couple oxide silicon dioxide
0:24:32   indigenous Keller's, or is because the copper mines right? So that's really important point here,
0:24:41   because copper can also continent the water, and it's a heavy mail is not good hole safety and
0:24:50   health,
0:24:54   and it happens. Same in nitrobenzene. Basically, uh, the heck DejaNews Kelly's gives good lease Ope,
0:25:05   but also copper with a ozone and copper wires almost showed seem exactly same behavior here, so we
0:25:17   still don't know if it is because of heavy engineers caress or because copper are you. So basically,
0:25:25   even after you moving the Cavaliers, you students shores of removal of the carbon component from
0:25:34   water. That being said, the cut there, there's to effect of copper irons in the water. It excite,
0:25:42   you know, homogeneous Kelis. So we want to remove that copper because it's the amount of couple
0:25:50   leaching is higher than what Don't repeal wh you and E. P. A. Um says so we want to do you move the
0:26:01   possibility right? The basic need and is introduced for that to quote, to cover the copper oxide Oh,
0:26:15   circuits like this and then we concentrate this one up to several 100 even see, and he waas you want
0:26:26   just stable. He was very good even though he was covered with on aluminum oxide. Aidala monoxide,
0:26:33   it's not gonna decrease calendars performance. That's the key office experiment ity. So, uh, this is,
0:26:46   um, scaring tm
0:26:50   that you picture and then you can see the basement particles. We re point about 3.59 minute time.
0:27:01   Inner oh, shows you Andy limits that quoting copper oxide, silicon dioxide. And then, um,
0:27:14   you can see gens spectra on the right side, but, uh, system copper on the copper oxide and five
0:27:27   cycle air. The I don't even excite cover copper oxide. Second, I excited. So the story is basically
0:27:37   very similar to couple side with the yellow. Kerr was not exactly seen
0:27:46   right.
0:27:49   So that being said that that means there's a some kind off chemical bonding alteration induced by,
0:28:00   uh is past nation basically, and we look at the performance off the the other books that cover
0:28:13   quoted, and there's, you know, Scalise, and then the yellow card means the I don't carbon river
0:28:21   percentage, and it's with higher number of cycles there. It gets worse at 10 cycles, but off the
0:28:31   five cycles, it's almost remain scene A. A couple leaching amount is extremely cigarette. Country De
0:28:44   Cruz is that even after one cycle olive, it looks basically works. Do you get, um, it goes all the
0:28:54   way even after one second and the five second 10 cycles gets even better. Significant in is
0:29:02   suppressed,
0:29:06   and we was so check exciting absorption spectroscopy and do some feeding or accepts. Basically, Ah,
0:29:21   on the left, there's a, uh, well signed number one and two. It shows the if it is high. That means
0:29:32   there's a more oh, up irons, he and see He's after, um 10 5 seconds or other mental set. And these
0:29:43   shows no, much of, you know, features on one and two time means there's not much a copper eyes here.
0:29:54   And then there's this feeding shows after, uh, five cycles of Oliver Knox. According Uh oh, the
0:30:08   coordination on copper auction Copper shell has so much higher number than we don't. Quoting death
0:30:19   means from other their process their means. The is quoting eliminates according can, uh, basically,
0:30:31   you're passivity and decorate. The low coronation sites basically covers that and then that covering
0:30:42   prevent for ah leaching. Basically So couple Iris is not going to you spread so much. So it's
0:30:50   basically passive baiting farewell, even upto 700 Ignace A fascination. So this is very important.
0:30:58   Teoh.
0:31:01   You know, environmental safety. And after this we can tell the cattle care of tea performance off
0:31:14   the head. Better catalyst, copper oxide, the circle dioxide after covering with a liminal saying
0:31:22   It's not from copper Ryan, Right? These this human world, we're getting component. It's not from the
0:31:31   copper mine, because we are able to suppress that copper leaching Barre where, after using a and E
0:31:39   the's performances so almost only from the copper oxide heterogeneous catalyst we can tell of it.
0:31:50   The conclusion.
0:31:54   So basically re we're not able to detail mine whether these catalytic performances from home engines,
0:32:05   copper iron or from intravenous couple site second I of science system. But after suppressing that,
0:32:14   using any of the we are able to tell this is actually from the insurgents a system, then A and e um,
0:32:24   Ken from Corrie is union a good fit forties, I hope, you know, propose. Uh, that's very good.
0:32:32   Technology is very simple, but very effective. Um, you'll selected thing. Teoh Momen? Yeah,
0:32:41   Professor Wu and that the new and purpose of bottler and all the members. Thank you. Um, every I
0:32:54   like to think you a h and NSF for supporting, uh, this project. Thank you. Any questions?